The Master of Science in Clinical Cytology programme was mounted in the Department of Human pathology in 1996. Currently the Department is the only centre that offers this degree in the region. To date the program has produced over 25 graduates who are working with the Ministry of Health, Higher institutions of learning and research organisations.  Graduates of this program   work hand in hand with pathologists, to provide the much needed rapid inexpensive cytological diagnosis and patient follow up . Clinical Cytology is a sub-speciality of pathology that provides early detection of disease. The most widely understood role of cytology is in pap smear, a screening testing developed in the early 20th century by George Papanicolaou for cervical pathology. The field of cytopathology has grown to include needle aspiration techniques for many other tumors and pathologies. With increased prevalence of cancer, there is a growing demand for cytolologists. Cytopathology has been refined    by in-cooperation of advanced radiological techniques such as immunophenotying and molecular diagnostic pathology. The revised curriculum has expanded the scope of knowledge and skills and will include immunophenotyping, forensic aspects of cytology, and molecular pathology. In addition cytolologists are assuming laboratory leadership roles and the program has therefore included a leadership and management course unit.

The program has a major emphasis on practicals, mainly in applied Cytotechnology, molecular techniques and applied Cytomorphology. Therefore we have put in place several formative assessments to go with these practicals

4.1 The Master of Science Clinical Cytology program course shall be on full time basis and shall cover a minimum number of two (2) academic years and a maximum of four (4) academic years. All the course units shall be compulsory.

4.2 The program shall comprise of 2 parts; Part 1 (year 1) and Part 2 (year 2)

4.3 The learners shall be required to a maintain and submit a logbook for a minimum set number of clinical cases

4.4 The learner shall be required to undertake a supervised project and to submit a written dissertation for

examination in the second year of study.

4.5 The learner shall undertake a research project, the dissertation of which shall be for the final year examination

4.6 A student exceeding the prescribed maximum duration of the course without valid reason shall be discontinued


The common regulations for the Master's degree of the University of Nairobi shall apply. Applicants eligible for admission to the course shall fulfil the following conditions:

  1. Holder of a Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery University of Nairobi degrees (or equivalent as approved by Senate)
  2.  Holder of a Bachelor of Dental Surgery degree or its equivalent 
  3. Holder of a Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Sciences degree or its equivalent 
  4. Must provide evidence of proficiency in the English language from a recognized institution in the case of  applicants whose language of instruction during the undergraduate course was not the English language
Year 1  Semester 1   Semester 2   
TUITION      192,000.00      192,000.00      384,000.00
EXAMINATION (PER UNIT @1000)           3,000.00                        -             3,000.00
REGISTRATION (PER SEMESTER@2250)           2,250.00           2,250.00           4,500.00
ID CARD (PER YEAR)           1,000.00                        -             1,000.00
LIBRARY (PER YEAR)           5,000.00                        -             5,000.00
ACTIVITY-(PER YEAR)           2,000.00                        -             2,000.00
MEDICAL FEE (PER YEAR)           6,500.00                        -             6,500.00
ICT SERVICES - (PER YEAR)           7,000.00                        -             7,000.00
CAUTION - (ONCE)           5,000.00                        -             5,000.00
STUDENT Organization(PER YEAR)           1,000.00                        -             1,000.00
Totals   224,750.00   194,250.00   419,000.00